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BLOOD PRESSURE, HIGH OR LOW

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PHYSICAL INFORMATION
Vital signs, including orthostatic BP obtained white lying down, sitting
and standing, if possible
Any associated indicators of related neurological or cardiac decline
which include modified level of consciousness, significant new
neurological abnormalities cardiac rate or rhythm disturbances
Any related signs of hemorrhage, including bleeding,
bruising, and tenderness
Pain evaluation
Headaches, facial flushing, nosebleed, and fatigue
(hypertension)
Tachycardia, weak or thready pulse, weakness, dizziness,
confusion, or cool, pale, dusky or cyanotic skin (hypotension)

HEALTH CARE BACKGROUND
Patient’s age and sex
Abnormal BP patterns over time, including any relationship with
prescription medication adjustments
Any_associated symptoms of relevant neurological or cardiac
decline including chest pain, dizziness, lightheadedness,
blurred vision, headache, weakness or weakness, problems
inhaling and exhaling, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, or dark or bloody
stools
Any alterations in coloring or output of urine
All current prescription drugs, including any recent changes;
especially any hypertensive or heart drugs
Recent or current background of chest pain, head trauma, persistent
headache, change in degree of consciousness, dizziness, and
diaphoresis
All existing diagnoses

BLOOD PRESSURE EVALUATION
Special focus must be made to selection of size of BP cuff
in elderly adults, especially frail older adults, because they have
decreased or lost upper body mass.
Classification of Blood Pressure
High Blood Pressure
Stage1
Stage2
Illustrations of Typical Errors in
Blood Pressure Measurement
Error Effect
Bladder or cuff too wide False low reading
Bladder or cuff too narrow/too short False high reading
Cuff wrapped too loosely/unevenly False high reading
Deflating cuff too slowly False high diastolic
reading
Deflating cuff too quickly False low systolic/false
high diastolic reading
Arm underneath heart level False high reading
Arm above heart level False low reading
Arm not reinforced False high reading
Stethoscope that fits inadequately False low systolic/false
high diastolic reading
Stethoscope applied too tightly False low diastolic reading
Inflating too slowly False high diastolic
reading
Repeating assessments too quickly False low systolic reading
Imprecise inflation level False low systolic reading.

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