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. Vital signs
. Details of existing ambulatory capability, gait, and
. Extremities and musculoskeletal evaluation,
including evidence of deformity, pain, modified
range of motion, etc. of lower extremities
. Any alterations in psychological status and level of
‘ Evidence of recent injury to lower extremities
. Ability to ambulate with assistive products


. Patient’s age and sex
. Onset, time-span, frequency, and severeness of
. Usual (standard) ambulatory functions
. All current medical diagnoses
‘ All current medications, including any recent
. History of any episodes of falling, injury or other
occurrences affecting ambulation

During the assessment of the Musculoskeletal System, the health professional needs to employ his/her knowledge of examination and observation such as: Recognition of problems with gait and Range of Motion (ROM), reporting any problems noted in ROM or muscular strength, and using precautions during ROM routines to prevent forcing a joint past the patient’s current ROM.

Joints: Pain, stiffness, swelling, warmth, redness, limitation
of activity
Muscles: Soreness, cramping, weakness
Bones: Deformity, discomfort, trauma (fractures, sprains, dislocation.

This assessment is essential when a person reports pain, loss of sensation, or impairment of joint and/or muscular function.

Examples of a Functional Examination, How to start:

Place the person’s leg flat on the bed. Put one hand beneath the ankle and your other hand under the knee. Straighten the leg and return
it to a flat position on the bed atter every motion.

. Hip and knee bends. Slowly flex the hip and knee up
toward the chest as much as possible (flexion). Slide your
hand out from under the knee and toward the upper thigh.
Do this to help the knee flex fully.
. Leg motion, side to side. Move the leg out to the outer
side as far as feasible. (abduction) Then return the leg to
the middle and cross it above the other leg (adduction).
. Leg rotation, in and out. With the leg flat on the bed. roll
the leg toward the middle so the big toe touches the bed (internal rotation). Roll the leg outward so the little toe
touches the bed (external rotation).
. Knee rotation, In and out. Bend the person’s knee so the
bottom part of the foot is flat on the bed. Roll the leg inward as
much as possible. Try to contact the bed with the big toe. Roll
the leg outward as far as possible. Try to touch the bed
with the little toe.

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